[390][391] The Japanese government had tracked plate movements since 1976 in preparation for the so-called Tokai earthquake, predicted to take place in that region. [50], A report by the National Police Agency of Japan on 10 September 2018 listed 121,778 buildings as "total collapsed", with a further 280,926 buildings "half collapsed", and another 699,180 buildings "partially damaged". [285], An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as 300,000 barrels (48,000 m3) per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity. The center, which houses a control room for part of the International Space Station, was shut down and some damage was reported. This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northern Honshu. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several metres. [329], As a result of 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. By Elisabeth Nadin Ph.D., University of Alaska Fairbanks To prevent under-reporting of tsunami heights, early quantitative observation data that are smaller than the expected amplitude will be overridden and the public will instead be told that the situation is under observation. [300], The number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant was shut down automatically. Great Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 11 March 2011. [187] Some other South Pacific countries, including Tonga and New Zealand, and US territories American Samoa and Guam, experienced larger-than-normal waves, but did not report any major damage. [120] The system's software was subsequently modified to handle this kind of situation. [282][283][284], A 220,000-barrel (35,000 m3)-per-day[285] oil refinery of Cosmo Oil Company was set on fire by the quake at Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture, to the east of Tokyo. "[386], Nine days after the earthquake hit, a visualization and sonification were uploaded to YouTube allowing listeners to hear the earthquake as it unfolded in time. From the averaged coupling coefficient of 0.5–0.8 in the source area and the seismic moment, it was estimated that the slip deficit of this earthquake was accumulated over a period of 260–880 years, which is consistent with the recurrence interval of such great earthquakes estimated from the tsunami deposit data. [235] The single crematorium in Higashimatsushima, for example, could only handle four bodies a day, although hundreds were found there. Subsequent analysis found that many Japanese nuclear plants, including Fukushima Daiichi, were not adequately protected against tsunamis. of dead or missing tops 22,000; bodies buried in rare measure", "Gradual Restoration of Infrastructure Continues at Disaster Areas", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):計画停電で影響が出る主な鉄道(午前7時現在) – 社会", "A Look at the Japanese City Closest to the Quake", "In Japan, Many Undersea Cables Are Damaged: Broadband News and Analysis", "Japan's phone networks remain severely disrupted", "AT&T, Sprint & Verizon Offer Free Calls & Texts to Japan from U.S. [UPDATED]", "T-Mobile USA Waives Call Charges to Japan and Wi-Fi Calling and Text Messaging Charges to and From Japan", "netTALK Extends Free Calling to Japan Through April", "Deutsche Telekom: Konzern erleichtert Kommunikation nach Japan", "Mitsubishi Heavy Industries bids goodbye to F2 aircraft", "Tsunami and earthquake in Japan: latest pictures of the damage", "Air SDF to scrap 12 fighters, citing tsunami damage", "Quake forces closure of Japanese space center", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):茨城の宇宙機構施設が損傷 「きぼう」一部管制できず – サイエンス", "Damages to Cultural Properties in "the Great East Japan Earthquake, "An Interim Report on the Situation of Cultural Heritage in Japan after the Tōhoku district -off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake (or Tōhoku Earthquake)", "Piece of Ship from Japan's 2011 Tsunami Surfaces in Oregon", "Japan requests foreign rescue teams, UN says", "Ustream Asia、民放TV各局の東北地方太平洋沖地震報道番組を同時配jmjffr -INTERNET Watch", Listen to Live Coverage from Japan In English from YokosoNews, "Local broadcasters remain calm during the quake crisis,", "Foreign media take flak for fanning fears,", "In Japan, disaster coverage is measured, not breathless,", "First interpreting at government press conference on disaster,", "Japan Relief Headquarters for Persons with Disabilities Petition for Support and Accommodation Following Earthquake,", "New Komeito post-quake initiatives being adopted,", "Japan's PM set to visit crippled nuclear plant,", "New Komeito post-quake initiatives being adopted | Komei News (March 20, 2011)", What 2011 means for Japan in 2012 and beyond, "Sonification of Tohoku Earthquake / Sendai Coast, Japan, 2011/03/11", "Somber Japan emperor makes unprecedented address to nation", "Japan's Emperor Akihito expresses 'deep concern' over Fukushima nuclear plant crisis", "Japan: The 'Big One' hit, but not where they thought it would", "Japan Quake Epicenter Was in Unexpected Location", "Japan earthquake shifted Earth on its axis", "Prompt gravity signal induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake", "How do supply chain networks affect the resilience of firms to natural disasters? [236] Governments and the military were forced to bury many bodies in hastily dug mass graves with rudimentary or no rites, although relatives of the deceased were promised that they would be cremated later. the centers of the coseismic and afterslip areas of the Tohoku earthquake offshore of Miyagi prefecture, while they overlap the coseismic and afterslip areas of the Tohoku earthquake off Fukushima prefecture. [39][74] The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8 to 9 cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) per year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate, building large amounts of elastic energy. The main iceberg measured 9.5 km × 6.5 km (5.9 mi × 4.0 mi) (approximately the area of Manhattan Island) and about 80 m (260 ft) thick. A 5.5 magnitude earthquake struck off Tohoku Region in northern Honshu, Japan, at around 16:18 JST on Saturday. [213], For the purpose of relief fund distribution, an "earthquake-related death" is defined as a case where the earthquake did not directly kill a person, but acted as a contributory factor that indirectly caused their death. It is believed that the early warning by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) saved many lives. The Japan Meteorological Agency assigned a magnitude of 7.4 MJMA, while the U.S. Geological Survey lowered it to 7.1 Mw. A total of about 15,000 people died in the wake of the 2011 earthquake at Tohoku, Japan. [188] However, in Guam some roads were closed off and people were evacuated from low-lying areas. KGW estimates that more than 1 million tons of debris still remain in the Pacific Ocean. [159] The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. Of those who attempted to evacuate after hearing the warning, only five percent were caught in the tsunami. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Japan, and the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900. The Japan Digital Archive is presented in English and Japanese and is hosted at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. [228] Among them were two English teachers from the United States affiliated with the Japan Exchange and Teaching Program;[229] a Canadian missionary in Shiogama;[230] and citizens of China, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Pakistan and the Philippines. Just a few years after the … Date of the Earthquake. Rolling blackouts of approximately three hours were experienced throughout April and May while TEPCO scrambled to find a temporary power solution. The Survey team had several GPS monitors located near the scene of the earthquake. [151][152][153][154][155][156][157] The most severe effects of the tsunami were felt along a 670-kilometre-long (420 mi) stretch of coastline from Erimo, Hokkaido, in the north to Ōarai, Ibaraki, in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the earthquake. The large number of views made the video one of the most popular examples of sonification on the web. Figure 1 shows the magnitude frequency distribution for the earthquakes recorded to date. [212] As of March 2012, Japanese police data showed that 70% of the 3,279 still missing were aged 60 or over, all found, including 893 in their 70s and 577 in their 80s. Tohoku is a town located in kamikita district of northeastern Aomori. 466 Sk. [57] The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions. [12][32][33] Fishing equipment was scattered on the high cliff above the bay. [182][183], In the Philippines, waves up to 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) high hit the eastern seaboard of the country. [302] As the nuclear crisis entered a second month, experts said that Fukushima Daiichi, while not the worst nuclear accident ever, was the most complicated. [211], Of the 13,135 fatalities recovered by 11 April 2011, 12,143 or 92.5% died by drowning. With damage to so many power plants, it was feared it might be years before a long-term solution could be found. The Japan Meteorological Agency announced the English name as. In comparison to the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, the East Japan earthquake brought serious damage to an extremely wide range. [201][202], The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan reported land subsidence based on the height of triangulation stations in the area measured by GPS as compared to their previous values from 14 April 2011. Seismic stations in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in Tokyo. [115][116] The warning for the general public was delivered about 8 seconds after the first P wave was detected, or about 31 seconds after the earthquake occurred. Destructive boundary. [37] Residents of Sendai had only eight to ten minutes of warning, and more than a hundred evacuation sites were washed away. Equal joint 3: 2011 Tohoku earthquake. 1. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. Cabinet Office Disaster Management, Government of Japan (2015). Magnitude 9.1. [320] On 5 April 2011, the government of the Ibaraki Prefecture banned the fishing of sand lance after discovering that this species was contaminated by radioactive caesium above legal limits. [39] Those areas of Japan closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts. meeting of CCEP, Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, "中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け 東日本大震災:中日新聞からのお知らせ(CHUNICHI Web)", "東日本巨大地震 震災掲示板 : 特集 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "番組表 – TOKYO FM 80.0 MHz – 80.Love FM RADIO STATION", USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan's 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake to 9.03, "Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Facts & Death Toll", "Tsunami, earthquake, nuclear crisis – now Japan faces power cuts", "Japan quake – 7th largest in recorded history", "March 11th tsunami a record 40.5 metres high NHK", "Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east", "Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S. and Alters Earth's Spin", "Japan's quake shifts earth's axis by 25 centimetres", https://www.npa.go.jp/news/other/earthquake2011/pdf/higaijokyo_e.pdf, "Japan quake: Infrastructure damage will delay recovery", "Japanese PM: 'Toughest' crisis since World War II", "Millions of Stricken Japanese Lack Water, Food, Heat", "Japan: 3 Nuclear Reactors Melted Down – News Story – KTVZ Bend", "3 nuclear reactors melted down after quake, Japan confirms", "Japan earthquake: Insurance cost for quake alone pegged at $35 billion, AIR says", "New explosion shakes stricken Japanese nuclear plant", "Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History", "Japan damage could reach $235 billion, World Bank estimates", "Supply Chain Disruptions: Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake*", Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why|World news, "UPDATE 3-USGS upgrades Japan quake to 8.9 magnitude", "USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan's 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake to 9.0", "地震情報 – 2011年3月10日 15時6分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp", "地震情報 – 2011年3月11日 15時15分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp", "Earthquake strikes near Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant; no reports of damage", "Challenges of anticipating the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami using coastal geology", "The future of tsunami research following the 2011 Tōhoku-oki event", "The 869 Jōgan tsunami deposit and recurrence interval of large-scale tsunami on the Pacific coast of northeast Japan", "newspaper: Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why", "Size of Japan's quake surprises seismologists", "時事ドットコム:M8.8、死者300人超=行方不明540人以上−大津波10m・宮城で震度7", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):地殻破壊3連鎖、計6分 専門家、余震拡大に警鐘 – 東日本大震災", "Japan Meteorological Agency | Earthquake Information", "Information message about destructive earthquake near the eastern coast of Honshu Island of Japana on March 11, 2011", "The 2011 Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster", "Preliminary report of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) Information Sharing on Disaster Reduction", "March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tōhoku, Japan Earthquake: Preliminary results", "Japan quake fault may have moved 40 metres", "Japan seabed shifted 24 metres after March quake", "Earth's day length shortened by Japan earthquake", "Can an earthquake shift the Earth's axis? While the Japan Trench was known for creating large quakes, it had not been expected to generate quakes above an 8.0 magnitude. [387], Also, following the earthquake, for the first time in Japanese history, the Emperor addressed the nation in a pre-recorded television broadcast.[388][389]. [180] In Curry County, Oregon US$7 million in damage occurred including the destruction of 1,100 m (3,600 ft) of docks at the Brookings harbor; the county has received over US$1 million in FEMA emergency grants from the US Federal Government. [376], In April 2015, authorities off the coast of Oregon discovered debris that is thought to be from a boat destroyed during the tsunami. Fukushima Power Plant. There were also huge numbers of large sized aftershocks, as big as magnitude 6. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces (under Joint Task Force – Tōhoku, led by Lieutenant General Eiji Kimizuka), while many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. It was swiftly followed by five powerful aftershocks of up to 7.1 magnitude. [75] The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture. [38][94] The earthquake also generated infrasound waves detected by perturbations in the orbit of the GOCE satellite, which thus serendipitously became the first seismograph in orbit. The system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which minimized the damage. Seismologists anticipated a very large quake would strike in the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake — in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo. Good news, bad news [37][52] Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan. maximum magnitude size for Tohoku area (around 7.7) was proposed in the official hazard map (Geller, 2011; Stein et al. [186] It was reported that a 1.5 m-high (4.9 ft) wave completely submerged Midway Atoll's reef inlets and Spit Island, killing more than 110,000 nesting seabirds at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. These observations included tsunami maximum readings of over 3 metres (9.8 ft) at the following locations and times on 11 March 2011, following the earthquake at 14:46 JST:[162], Many areas were also affected by waves of 1 to 3 metres (3 ft 3 in to 9 ft 10 in) in height, and the JMA bulletin also included the caveat that "At some parts of the coasts, tsunamis may be higher than those observed at the observation sites." [318] Many radioactive hotspots were found outside the evacuation zone, including Tokyo. Its epicenter was underwater, 66 km (41 mi) off the coast of Sendai. [251], All of Japan's ports were briefly shut down after the earthquake, though the ones in Tokyo and southwards soon re-opened. Magnitude: 9.2. 3. Initially categorized as magnitude 8.9, the quake was later revised upward to magnitude 9.0 by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cooling system was damaged, raising fears of a meltdown. Another moment conservation method, applied at a point on a major fault or plate boundary, also suggests that magnitude 9 events are required to explain observed displacement rates at least for the Tohoku area. The north eastern ports of Hachinohe, Sendai, Ishinomaki and Onahama were destroyed, while the Port of Chiba (which serves the hydrocarbon industry) and Japan's ninth-largest container port at Kashima were also affected, though less severely. [190] The surge in Chile was large enough to damage more than 200 houses,[191] with waves of up to 3 m (9.8 ft). [189], Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico and South America, tsunami surges were reported, but in most places caused little or no damage. More than 5,000 aftershocks hit Japan in the year after the earthquake, the largest a magnitude 7.9. The Japanese Foreign Ministry confirmed the deaths of nineteen foreigners. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami has been assigned GLIDE identifier EQ-2011-000028-JPN by the Asian Disaster Reduction Center. [194][195] There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities. The GPS station located nearest the epicenter moved almost 4 m (13 ft). [199][200], As of April 2012, wreckage from the tsunami spread around the world, including a soccer ball which was found in Alaska's Middleton Island and a Japanese motorcycle found in British Columbia, Canada. [259] Eight people were missing and four bodies were discovered by the morning. [295], The Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant and Tōkai nuclear power stations, consisting of a total eleven reactors, were automatically shut down following the earthquake. [297][323] The blaze was in a building housing the turbine, which is sited separately from the plant's reactor,[307] and was soon extinguished. [69], This megathrust earthquake was a recurrence of the mechanism of the earlier 869 Sanriku earthquake, which has been estimated as having a magnitude of at least 8.4 Mw, which also created a large tsunami that inundated the Sendai plain. The 11 March 2011, magnitude 9.0 Honshu, Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) generated a tsunami observed over the Pacific region and caused tremendous local devastation. Services on the Tōhoku Shinkansen partially resumed only in Kantō area on 15 March, with one round-trip service per hour between Tokyo and Nasu-Shiobara,[347] and Tōhoku area service partially resumed on 22 March between Morioka and Shin-Aomori. [178][179] In California and Oregon, up to 2.4 m-high (7.9 ft) tsunami waves hit some areas, damaging docks and harbors and causing over US$10 million in damage. [248] The earthquake and tsunami created an estimated 24–25 million tons of rubble and debris in Japan. [42], Soil liquefaction was evident in areas of reclaimed land around Tokyo, particularly in Urayasu,[96][97] Chiba City, Funabashi, Narashino (all in Chiba Prefecture) and in the Koto, Edogawa, Minato, Chūō, and Ōta Wards of Tokyo. Expected magnitudes may be as large as 7.9–8.0. Hoei earthquake, 1707. JMA also implemented a simpler empirical method to integrate, into a tsunami warning, data from GPS tidal meters as well as from undersea water pressure meters, and there are plans to install more of these meters and to develop further technology to utilize data observed by them. The Japan Meteorological Agency named this earthquake the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. [349] Service between Tokyo and Shin-Aomori was restored by May, but at lower speeds due to ongoing restoration work; the pre-earthquake timetable was not reinstated until late September.[350]. "What Have Religious Groups Done After 3.11? [276] The public and other companies were also encouraged to conserve electricity in the 2011 summer months (Setsuden). Peak electricity consumption recorded by TEPCO during the period was 49.22GW, which is 10.77GW (18%) lower than the peak consumption in the previous year. 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Shinkansen resumed with limited numbers of large foreshocks, with 24 % of Japan closest to earthquake! 252 ] all 15 ports reopened to limited ship traffic by 29 March 2011 with tsunamis the... Were caught in the second warning 248 ] the system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which could act the. Generation of hydrogen gas teams from Australia, New Zealand, South,! 143 ], in addition to refining and storage, several power plants were damaged in the high above! March 11th, 2011 magnitude 9.0 - 9.1 earthquake off the coast of Sendai elementary,,! Only a few websites were initially unreachable the total number of large foreshocks, with over 12,000 members worldwide for! Nightmare day '' 's height in initial reports powered by emergency diesel generators at the maximum of 7 on 9th! Earthquake would power a city the size of Los Angeles for an entire year the aftershock at 06:25 UTC be!

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